What Is Multinational Agreement
The number of bilateral investment agreements increased rapidly during the 1990s. countries and investors are inspired by increased security regulation, security and mobility of their investments, after it became clear that the Uruguay Round Trade Investment Measures (TRIMS) Agreement, the Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (ADPIC) Agreement and the General Trade in Services Agreement (GATS) only took into account some of the investment-related concerns and that investors were not sufficient security and strong controls by multinationals.  In addition to these instruments, the World Bank adopted guidelines in 1992 for the treatment of foreign direct investment.  In 1994, the Energy Charter Treaty set an example of a multilateral investment agreement, but limited to the energy sector. The 1924 Pan American Code of Hygiene 2 is an excellent example of a multilateral agreement to limit the spread of communicable diseases and other “dangerous infections that can spread through international trade” (Panamerican Health Organization). It should be noted that surveillance and the exchange of epidemiological data have been important elements of the code`s mandate. The 1924 code of hygiene replaced a written version of 1905, which had been expressed to monitor a certain group of communicable but limited diseases that were tormenting the region at that time. The success of these regional multilateral agreements prepared the conditions for the adoption of WHO`s International Hygiene Rules (ISRs) in 1951. The SRIs were renamed IDR in 1969 and modified in 1973 and 1981. According to WHO, ASD is one of the first multilateral regulatory mechanisms focused on global surveillance of communicable diseases. Starting in 1997, IDRs were legally binding on all WHO Member States except Australia. The effectiveness and impact of IR is controversial and is the subject of much discussion among WHO members.
It is ironic that one of the main points raised in the IR complaint is related to the disclosure of surveillance data. For example, in 1994, after reporting a plague epidemic, India suffered nearly $2 billion in trade losses due to excessive embargoes by other nations. Similarly, in 1997, the economies of several East African countries were harmed by the ban on the import of fresh fish into the European Community following a declared cholera epidemic (Aginam, 2002). Another reason often cited for the inefficiency of the IR is the inflexibility and inability of regulations to adapt to changing international trade and public health conditions. There is no doubt that international food trade has changed significantly since the IDR was amended in 1981, which would call into question the usefulness of regulations to combat the spread of food-related diseases. The promotion of food security, it seems, was never the explicit intent of the IHR regulations.