World War Two Agreements
The Second World War put an end to American isolationism. The first steps to divert the United States from neutrality took the form of executive agreements (such as the agreement on the destruction of bases of 3 September 1940), which allowed for an increase in aid to England. But it was the important Lend-Lease Act (March 11, 1941) that introduced the United States to the most advanced phase of world diplomacy before Pearl Harbor, while giving a whole new form. Franklin Roosevelt`s bold initiatives, combined with the enormous growth of American economic power, have given a new and unprecedented diplomatic form, that of foreign aid. While traditional diplomacy was conducted between large and small powers and Wilson`s diplomacy established the principle of equality, diplomacy took on a double character after the granting of credit. On the one hand, relations between nations considered equal continued to be led by ambassadors. On the other hand, a new form of relations between two countries has emerged, one becoming the donor and the other the recipient of the aid. The aid, which could be economic, military or technical, was managed by government officials who were not ambassadors and who generally depended only nominally on it. Assistance agreements have generally evolved as follows: first, it has struck down a general law by Congress; Second, the vote on appropriations; third, aid agreements with beneficiaries. Even after the Korean War (July 27, 1953), after the French withdrawal from Indochina (the Geneva Accords of July 20, 1954 were rejected by the United States) or after the war in Vietnam, peace agreements concluded – only ceasefire agreements – were not put into effect. In the latter case, after five years of negotiations between the United States, North Vietnam, South Vietnam and the National Liberation Front, an agreement was finally reached on January 28, 1973.
Although it had the breadth and scope of a peace treaty, it was simply an executive agreement that came into force on the American side with the signature of Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and not after senate approval. The Charter of the United Nations was created as a way to save “future generations from the scourge of war.” This is the result of the inability of the League of Nations to resolve the conflicts that led to the Second World War. Now, as early as 1941, the Allies have made a proposal that has created a new international body for peacekeeping in the post-war world. The idea of the United Nations began to be articulated in August 1941, when U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill signed the Atlantic Charter, which proposed a set of principles of international cooperation for the maintenance of peace and security. This term was first used officially on January 1, 1942, when representatives of 26 allied nations met in Washington D.C and signed the United Nations Declaration, which endorsed the Atlantic Charter and presented the United Allied War Objectives. The United Nations Conference on the International Organization, convened in San Francisco on 25 April 1945, met with 50 represented nations.
Three months later, when Germany visited, the final Charter of the United Nations was unanimously adopted by delegates.